Mechanisms of Action of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Repair Regeneration and their Implications

Manisha Singh, Suchi Gupta, Sonali Rawat, Swati Midha, Krishan Gopal Jain, Manu Dalela, Sujata Mohanty

Abstract


Cell replacement therapy holds a promising future in the treatment of degenerative diseases related to neuronal, cardiac and bone tissues. In such kind of diseases, there is a progressive loss of specific types of cells. Currently the most upcoming and trusted cell candidate is Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) as these cells are easy to isolate from the tissue, easy to maintain and expand and no ethical concerns are linked. MSCs can be obtained from a number of sources like bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord, dental pulp, adipose tissues, etc. MSCs help in tissue repair and regeneration by various mechanisms of action like cell differentiation, immunomodulation, paracrine effect, etc. The future of regenerative medicine lies in tissue engineering and exploiting various properties to yield maximum output. In the current review article, we have targeted the repair and regeneration mechanisms of MSCs in neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac diseases and those related to bones. Yet there is a lot to understand, discover and then understand again about the molecular mechanisms of MSCs and then applying this knowledge in developing the therapy to get maximum repair and regeneration of concerned tissue and in turn the recovery of the patient.


Keywords


Differentiation, immunomodulation, exosomes, tissue engineering

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References


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