Medicalization of Nervous and Emotional Problems

Authors

  • Rakesh K Chadda Professor, Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110029
  • Swati Kedia Gupta PhD Scholar, All India Instutute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

Keywords:

Medicalization, mental health, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), medical marketing, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Abstract

Medicalization is the process of defining non-medical problems in medical terms, usually with the implication that a medical intervention is needed. It has been criticized for re-labeling “normal†human experiences as pathological or medical conditions. Some of the driving engines of medicalization include growth of pharmaceutical industry, advertising, managed care, and biotechnology. In the last few decades, serious concerns have also been raised about medicalization of mental health issues. Diagnosis such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sexual disorders are discussed in context of medicalization. Also, role of various stakeholders in dealing with medicalization are discussed. Keywords: Medicalization, mental health, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), medical marketing, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

References

Maturo A (2012). Medicalization: current concept and future directions in a bionic society. Mens Sana Monogr 10(1):122–133.

ChodoffP(2002).Themedicalization of the human condition. Psychiatr Serv 53(5):627–628.

I l l i c h I ( 1 9 7 3 ) . L i m i t s t o Medicine – Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health. London: Marion Boyars Publisher Ltd.

Horwitz AV and Wakefield JC (2009). The Medicalization of sadness: how psychiatry transformed a natural emotion into a mental disorder. SALUTE E Soc 18:49–66.

Conrad P (2007). The Medicalization of Society: On the Transformation of Human Conditions into Treatable Disorders. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

Conrad P (2005). The Shifting egines of medicalization. J Health Soc Behav 46(1):3–14.

Clarke AE, Shim JK, Mamo L, Fosket JR and Fishman JR (2003). Biomedicalization: technoscientific transformations of health, illness, and U.S. Biomedicine. Am Sociol Rev. 68(2):161–94.

Turner B (2004). The New Medical Sociology. London: Norton & Company.

Illich I (1976). Limits to Medicine. London: Marion Boyars Publisher Ltd.

Sen A (2002). Health: perception versus observation. Br Med J 324(7342):860–861.

Light D (2000). The sociological character of health care markets.

In: Handbook of Social Studies in Health and Medicine. Albrecht G, Fitzpatrick R, Susan CS (eds). San Fansisco: Sage Publication.

Lown B (2000). Market health care: the commodification of health care. Philos Soc Action 26:57–71.

Conrad P and Leiter V (2004). Medicalization, markets and consumers. J Health Soc Behav 45 Suppl:158–176.

Dyer AR (1997). Ethics, advertising, and assisted reproduction: the goals and methods of advertising. Women’s Health Issues 7:143–148.

Conrad P and Schneider P (1992). Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness (Expanded Edition). Philedelphia: Temple University Press, 248.

Payton A and Thoits P (2011). Medicalization, direct-to-consumer Advertising, and mental illness stigma. Soc Ment Health 1(1):55– 70.

Engstrom E (2003). Clinical Psychiatry in Imperial Germany- A History of Psychiatric Practice. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Aho K (2008). Medicalizing mental health: a phenomenological alternative. J Med Humanit 29(4):243–259.

L ew i s B ( 2 0 0 6 ) . M o v i n g Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New Psychiatry: The Birth of Postpsychiatry. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Bracken P and Thomas P (2005). Postpsychiatry: Mental Health in the Postmodern World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Harris G (2006). Proof is Scant on Psychiatric Drug Mix for Young. The New York Times.

NIMH (2008). NIMH Strategic Plan for Research 2008. National Institute of Mental Health. Rockville Pike, Betheseda, Maryland : National Institutes of Health.

Zito JM, Safer DJ, dosReis S, Gardner J, Boles M and Lynch F (2000). Trends in the prescribing of psychotropic medications to preschoolers. JAMA 283(8):1025– 1030.

Claudia M (2004). Medicalization, ambivalence and social control: mothers’ description of educators and ADD/ADHD. Health Interdiscip J Soc Study Health Illn Med 8:61–80.

Lasiuk G and Hegadoren K (2006). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Part I: Historical development of the concept. Perspect Psychiatr Care 42(1):13–20.

Eagan Chamberlin S (2012). Emasculated by trauma: a social history of post-traumatic stress disorder, stigma, and masculinity. J Am Cult 35(4):358–365.

Young A (1995). The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Princetown, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Andreasen N (1995). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: psychology, biology, and the manichaean warfare between false dichotomies. Am J Psychiatry 152(7):963–965.

Pupavac V (2004). War on the couch: the emotionology of the new international security paradigm. Eur J Soc Theory 7(2):149–170.

Jordan-Young R (2010). Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Moynihan R (2011). Medicalization. A new deal on disease definition. Br Med J 342:d2548.

Tiefer L (2010). Activism on the medicalization of sex and female genital cosmetic surgery by the new view campaign in the United States. Reprod Health Matters 18(35):56–63.

Sanghavi D (2011). The perils of excessive medical care. Lancet

(9777):1561–1562.

Mintzes B (1998). Blurring the Boundaries. Amsterdam: Health Action International.

Devisch I and Dierckx K (2009). On idiocy or the plea for an Aristotelian Health Policy. Public Health 123:4– 6.

Published

2012-01-01

Issue

Section

ARTICLES